October 14, 2020

Amphetamine: Meaning, Uses, Side Effects & Types

In nine of the studies reviewed here (20.9%), women were excluded by design. In some cases, this was due to the setting (e.g. male-only residential treatment centres), or studies conducted in specific populations (e.g. men who have sex with men), and in others the reason is not clearly stated. Research suggests women who take stimulants are more likely to become dependent consumers than men who take stimulants [77].

Chronic METH users are at higher risk for developing Parkinson’s disease than non-users [32]. Conversely, Parkinson’s disease patients are more prone to addictions [33]. These findings implicate a compromised nigrostriatal pathway in individuals heavily dependent on METH. Animal studies showed that intermittent and long access stimulant self-administration changes the brain in different https://ecosoberhouse.com/ ways to influence motivated behavior [34]. This data indicates that light, moderate, and heavy METH users represent subpopulations with different changes in the brain and likely need different pharmacotherapies. To date, there have been very few clinical trials involving people who abuse METH heavily and only recent trials have shown promise for these individuals [35].

2. Pharmacological Treatments for Methamphetamine Use Disorder

The sustainability of CM effects post-intervention has not been well-studied. Nevertheless, there is evidence for CM decreasing METH use months post-treatment [88]. Two studies reviewed examined dexamphetamine as stimulant agonist treatment. The first study reviewed 49 participants with MA dependence and prescribed 110 mg daily sustained-release oral dexamphetamine over 16 weeks. It measured MA use by self-report and analysis of hair, severity of dependence over time and treatment retention—finding no statistically significant difference between the study groups on planned analysis.

None of the six studies achieved a statistically significant difference in abstinence or reduction in use between the bupropion and placebo arm in planned primary outcome analyses. Amphetamines refer to both amphetamine (AMPH) and the structurally similar methamphetamines (MA), both of which are used extra-medically. MA is considered a more potent derivative of AMPH, with a longer duration of action and increased ability to cross the blood–brain barrier; and global shifts in the illicit stimulant market have resulted in the predominance of MA [2, 3].

Who’s at risk for amphetamine dependence?

Identifying addiction isn’t always easy and it’s best to leave diagnosis to healthcare professionals. However, it can be helpful to know the diagnostic criteria if you think that you or someone you care about has an addiction to amphetamines. If you are taking more than your prescribed dose of amphetamines or you are taking amphetamines that your provider did not prescribe to you, talk with your provider. If you notice you are taking more amphetamines than your recommended daily dose, talk with your provider. You shouldn’t drink alcohol while taking amphetamines because it could cause an unsafe reaction in your body that could lead to addiction.

Amphetamine Addiction

“Addiction” is the term for long-term behavioral, physical, and social changes a person may experience as a result of substance misuse. Doctors prescribe amphetamines for conditions such as ADHD, obesity, narcolepsy, and depression. Misusing amphetamines, or taking them in a different way than a doctor prescribes, can lead to amphetamine addiction. Fortunately, there are many treatment options available for amphetamine addiction. Seek medical help today if you or someone you know suffers from amphetamine addiction.

Amphetamine addiction signs and symptoms

Vital signs and a detailed history are difficult to obtain secondary to agitation, paranoia, and the extent of psychosis. The diagnosis should be considered in any patient with tachycardia, hypertension, and psychosis. If possible, the history should focus on the route Amphetamine Addiction of administration, dosage (amount and the number of usages), and time frame. Clinicians should also ask about co-ingestions to help distinguish mixed presentations and symptoms, as most users frequently use sedatives (alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines, cannabis).

Amphetamine Addiction

There is also a clear pattern of high dosage and daily usage correlating with higher risks of substance-induced psychosis. Amphetamines impair the cognitive thought process and subsequently precede acute psychosis. This suggests that continued impairment due to amphetamine use is a precursor to psychosis. Participating in a 12-step treatment program and getting individual counseling may reduce your chances of relapse and improve your chances for recovery. Your doctor may prescribe medication to ease severe symptoms of withdrawal.